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There are almost 7000 species of plants in Cuba, more than half of which are endemic. Amongst such varied plants and flowers are orchids, which maintain an honoured place. With more than 300 species featuring by colors and perfect shapes the orchids form one of the most outstanding floral patrimonies of the island. The National flower is the mariposa or butterfly jasmine, a small white petal orchid. The Royal palm is the National tree, cork palm (regarded as a living fossil) and cactuses can be found at the Cuban landscapes.

Some groups of animals like molluscs and amphibians are more than 90% endemic and thus unique to Cuba. In reptiles, more than 80% are unique to the island. Some of the island's species are famous around the world, like the Polymita, a land snail from the eastern provinces, with such color animation that each one is unique. From the family of quetzal, the tocororo is the National bird; its white, blue and red feathers reproduce the colors of the Cuban flag. The hutia, bats and almique represent land mammals. The zunzuncito or fly-bird, Microtytus scorpion, Cuban tiny frog and the sijucito are among the smallest animal species in the world. Some species risking extinction are: the Ivory-billet woodpecker, almique, Cuban crocodile, Conga hutia and manatee. The island's coral reefs are the best preserved in the Caribbean area.

All these treasures are scattered in different ecosystems, of which 75% are plains, 18% are mountains and 4% are swamps. Bio-diversity can be seen also in the different landscapes; from semi-desert, dry woods to humid tropical forests. There are 8 665.8 sq. km of national preservation areas. Cuba has neither dangerous animals nor plants.

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